Sunday, March 15, 2020

Financial analysis and comparison of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola The WritePass Journal

Financial analysis and comparison of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola Introduction Financial analysis and comparison of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola IntroductionReferences:Related Introduction Together both PepsiCo and Coca Cola are both companies that are known around the world for their goods. For decades now, these companies have been competitive against each other to â€Å"do better than† the other one, what some would call the â€Å"cola wars†. They individually offer a assortment of soft drinks; regular, diet, caffeine free and many other options for the public to choose from. Both of the companies also have quite a few different entities (or off springs) of their company, such as bottled water, energy drinks, and juices. Individually both PepsiCo and Coca Cola; better known as Pepsi and Coke, have produced goods for every income bracket. Inside this essay we will take a look into the two largest competing companies in the soft drink industry; Coca Cola and PepsiCo. Using financial data provided from 2004 and 2005, we will be able to use financial analysis, both vertical and horizontal, to verify the financial differences between the two companies. We should be able to make proper suggestions and recommendations with the review on both of the individual companies, income statements and balance sheets. The soft drink industry is one of the largest and assorted industries in the world; consumption in the United States alone is rated at 95%. Together Pepsi and Coke have dominated the soft drink industry, staying higher than any other competition for decades. Not only have they dominated the national market, but also have dominated the global market. Pepsi and Coke have triumphed over many obstacles, so that they may produce and distribute products in most countries around the globe. Both employ a strategy called â€Å"the follow up strategy†. When one launches a new product or service, the other is not far behind with a similar product or service. This strategy has been so effective within these two companies that it leaves other would be competitors oblivious to what just happened. Because of global success, both PepsiCo and Coca Cola have paid a price in one way or another regarding legal issues, precedents, and political opinions. Both of these companies are great examples that the power of influence is leadership. Since their influence is so powerful, they easily shut down competitors in the market as well as keep their moral and ethical values at a soaring level. According to the Forbes Super500 list of America’s largest public companies in 2003, both Coke and Pepsi are practically the same size. Pepsi was the 43rd-largest U.S. firm, just barely edging out Coke, which ranked 44th. This comparison was based on ranking sales, profits, market value and assets. Now let’s take a look at a more detailed comparison of these two companies. Within this analysis, the numbers will be represented in millions (100 is equal to 100 million). Beginning with a vertical analysis, used to do the comparison of the asset accounts categories, liability account categories, and the reports on liability accounts against asset accounts on the balance sheet. The principle for calculating a vertical analysis is current assets à · total assets. The starting point lies within the total assets for each company. In 2004, PepsiCo’s total assets were $27,987; in 2005 they totaled $31,727. Coca Cola’s assets were $31,441 for 2004 and $29,427 in 2005.   (Weygandt, Kimmel, Kieso, 2008). Now we must look at statistics on the balance sheets of each corporation. In 2004, Coke’s cost of merchandise sold were $7,674 equaling a ratio percentage of 24.4% of their total assets. In 2005 the cost of merchandise sold were $8,195 equaling 27.8% of the total assets. For Pepsi’s cost of merchandise sold, the totals were $12,674 equaling 45.3% in 2004 and $14,176 equaling 44.7% in 2005. Over a one year span the results of; PepsiCo had an increase of 5%, while Coke had an increase that year of 3.4%.   With this increase, the results do not necessarily mean a positive analysis, since the single figure does not disclose whether the increase is a positive measure.   A higher cost of sales may not be offset by higher revenues matching or exceeding the increased cost. Net income of PepsiCo in 2004 was $4,212 equaling a ratio percentage of 15.1% of total assets. In 2005, their net income was $4,078 equaling a ratio percentage of 13.2% of their total assets. This shows a 1.9% decrease in their net income between 2004 and 2005. Within the same period they also showed a decrease in the cost of sales. Coke on the other hand had a net income of $4,847 in 2004 equaling a ratio percentage of 15.4%. In 2005 their net income was $4,872 equaling a ratio of 16.6% of their total assets. This shows and an increase of 1.2% between 2004 and 2005.   Even though they experienced an increase of 1.2%, the increase of cost of merchandise sold had an increase of 3.4% only nets an additional 1.2%, making this a negative indication for Coca Cola. When comparing current assets and current liabilities to the total assets by taking a closer look at the consolidated balance sheets of these two companies for each year show that Pepsi’s total current assets were $8,639, in 2004, which equals a ratio percentage of 30.9% of total assets (for that year). For 2005, PepsiCo’s total current assets were $10,454 which equals a ratio percentage of 32.9% of total assets. From 2004 to 2005, they had an increase of 2% in their current assets. In contrast Coca Cola’s current assets were $12,281 equaling a ratio percentage of 39.1% for 2004 and $10,250 equaling a ratio percentage of 34.8%, in 2005; this shows a major decrease in their current assets. Although, there was a considerable decrease in their current assets, there was also a decrease in their current liabilities. These decreases in liabilities would be a positive indication for Coke instead of a negative one. In the area of current liabilities, we can see that in 2004 Pepsi’s total was $6,752 equaling 24.1%, and $9,406 equaling 29.9% in 2005. This shows that the increase of 2% within Pepsi’s assets is due to the company taking on more liabilities. Coke however had current liabilities of $11,133 equaling 35.4% in 2004, and $9,836 equaling 33.4% in 2005 which shows a decrease of 1% in their liabilities. This simply states that both companies had a larger percentage of liabilities to assets in 2005, compared to 2004 also taking into account that their current assets dropped 4.3%. To break that down even further, we look at the following figures. Coca Cola had a total liability in 2004 of $15,506 which equals 49.3% and in 2005 their total liabilities were $13,072 which equals 44.4%. That is a decrease in their liabilities of 4.9%. So while their assets dropped by 4.3%, their liabilities dropped even more. Horizontal analysis is the comparison of specific items account for a certain amount of numbers for the accounting period. This helps to determine the increase or decrease that has occurred by a percentage, a numerical change or trends over that time. There are two formulas that can be used to get this analysis. The first formula uses the current year amount and subtracts from that the base year amount, then take the difference and divide it by the base year amount.   The second formula divides the current year amount by the base year amount.   This gives the current yearly figure in a percentage for the given base year. PepsiCo’s total current assets for 2004 were $8,639 and $10,454 in 2005. The first horizontal analysis formula shows Pepsi had an increase of 121.01% of total current assets; over their 2004 base year figure. Coke’s total assets for 2004 were $12,281 and $10,250 for 2005 which shows a considerable loss. With these numbers it produces a loss percenta ge of 16.58% between 2004 (83.46%) and 2005. Moving onto liabilities, Coca Cola had $11,133 in total liabilities for 2004 and $9,836 for 2005, yielding a difference of 88.35% decreasing their liabilities by 11.65% from 2004 to 2005. For PepsiCo, their total liabilities for 2004 were $6,752 and $9,406 in 2005. Following the formula we can see that it shows an increase in their liabilities by 139.3% from 2004 to 2005, so for one year the total is 39.9%. Mutually PepsiCo and Coca Cola have reputations for being the major contenders in the soft drink industry. They have individually created well organized, strong, and profitable companies, but as you can see from the analysis done above that the financial data, shows a bit of a difference between the two financially. I can see adjustments that can be made and areas that can be worked on, and below I have made a few suggestions for the data I found. It can be determined from the information above that the net profits for both companies were less in 2005 than that of 2004. The operating expenses for both companies were higher in 2005 then 2004. Individually Pepsi and Coke should be working to decrease operation expenses and to increase profitability. Within Coca Cola, they suffered a decline in assets (4.3%) and their liabilities reduced by 4.9% from 2004 to 2005. The suggestion that I make for Coca Cola is they continue to reduce their liabilities, and work on raising net profits. This will increase their assets, As for Pepsi, they have a small increase in current assets between 2004 and 2005, but they had a substantial increase in liabilities. With a 5.8% increase in liabilities, there was only an increase of 2% within their assets. A suggestion I can make for PepsiCo is to focus efforts on their assets, to reduce their liabilities, and to not collect new liabilities. This way they can increase profitability. Looking into other years and comparisons, I see that Coca Cola gathers almost 53% of their annual revenue during spring and summer, whereas Pepsi seems to produce 30% more revenue in the later months of the year.   This is likely due to the fact that Pepsi also has snack (chips, etc) operations other than soft drinks, which is the preferred food of the season. There is also the topic of franchise systems. Pepsi has had success in the past with its franchise system; however, in recent years it has become a weakness for the company. The franchises   influence profits and revenues for Pepsi. My solution would be to dismantle the franchise system and replace it with one bottling unit. This will help Pepsi to eliminate competition with any private label companies and keep them on the forefront with Coke. Coca Cola believes in reinvesting into their infrastructure and does not operate a franchise system. When it comes to figures, Pepsi seems to have more advantages (other entities), whereas Coke is getting better figures.   This does not mean either company is better than the other, it shows that there is a tight competition between both companies and both are striving to surpass the other. References: PepsiCo.com. (2009).   Retrieved on: April 15, 2011 pepsico.com/index.html#/flash/pepsico_slide.swf Weygandt, J. J., Kimmel, P. D., Kieso, D. E. (2008). Financial accounting (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. The Coca Cola Company. (2009). Retrieved on: April 15, 2011 thecoca-colacompany.com/

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Bank of America or McDonald's Case Study Research Paper

Bank of America or McDonald's Case Study - Research Paper Example 1. Outlining the Talent Management Program That Led to Success for the Company McDonald's talent management program is behind the company's success, and its multipronged nature can be divided into five stages, as shall be seen. The first step of McDonald's talent management program is the redesigning of the company's performance development system for McDonald's rank and file, as a way of instilling accountability (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010). According to Goldsmith and Carter (2010), the second step of McDonald's talent management program involved designing the global talent review process, in order to help the company's staff align itself with changes that are taking place in the global market. There is the diagnosing of individual employees' ability and actual performance in different circumstances, as a way of determining an employee's inherent skills. The step above will be followed up with the analysis of the results that have been displayed by the employee being examined in or der to interpret the actual extent of the employee's talents and skills. The final step may involve action planning which portends, factoring the manner in which the displayed talents and skills by a particular employee can be consolidated and nurtured, so that newer skills are acquired without nascent talents being forfeited. This step may also involve integrating the talents detected into organizational (or McDonald's) synergy and operations. 2. Identifying Strengths of the Program and How They Led to Goal Accomplishment According to Handfield-Jones, Michaels and Axelrod (2001), the strengths attributable to the programs above led to the accomplishment of McDonald's goals. Particularly, redesigning the company's performance development system for McDonald's employees helped foster accountability at the intrapersonal level. Thus, this paves way for the eradication of abuse of office, underperformance, and professional negligence. In the same manner, the step served as an important artifice to encourage efforts towards the attainment of goals relevant to a particular office and officer, since these officers are accountable. All these are factors that fast-track optimal performance and thereby helping in the realization of the previously set performance target. Designing the global talent review process also serves as a point of strength, for talent management, since it gives talent management a wider and more global scope. Instead of focusing on employees' performance ability and skills at the intra-organizational level, employees' talents and abilities are weighed against global expectations and thereby helping McDonald's employees focus on maintaining the competence that is needed to thrive in a competitive global business environment. In the same wavelength, embarking on the global talent review process empowers employees to be abreast with the challenges and requirements that characterize the global market. In this case, by engaging its employees in the gl obal talent review process will help McDonald employees navigate complex matters in the global market, with these matters ranging from cultural restrictions on diet, local trade laws and commercial laws on multinationals, regional technological disparity, the local market's structure, competition and purchasing power. Another strength in engaging employees in designing the globa

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Technology and Management Functions Paper (due Week One) Essay

Technology and Management Functions Paper (due Week One) - Essay Example The efficiency quotient is however low due to various factors It was understood that the way to achieving efficiencies lies in Technology upgradation. This was the most important, yet the weakest of all resources we have. To help the day to day management of the organization the company used several small software packages for different departments like Finance, Production, and HR management. Yet the information was lacking for correct decision making. To overcome this issue it was agreed that the best option was to have an integrated ERP solution and to discard the several smaller software packages. This would result in seamless flow of data from point to point and instant information will be possible. This would be the backbone of an efficient organization. An industry specific ERP was purchased installed and implemented throughout the organization with a central database at the company Headquarters where all information became available to the management to help them in making informed decisions. The first step was to define the workflow between different departments. The ERP Project Managers assisted in planning a system and then provided activity based results in form of MIS (management information system) reports. These dynamic reports, that are prepared on the fly by picking data as soon as it is recorded, offer the management current status of each activity. They are indeed an end-to-end report management system. These reports can be accessed from any location enabling management to spot problems quickly and address them without delay. This would also reduce wasteful communication earlier required for just accessing the information. Production Planning and Control (PPC) was introduced at the various production units of the company. This resulted in identifying the resources available and then distributing the orders between them based on available capacity. The ERP could forecast this based on Knowledge Inputs like output

Friday, January 31, 2020

Anti Tobacco and No-Smoking Essay Example for Free

Anti Tobacco and No-Smoking Essay When you smoke or use smokeless tobacco, your risk of oral cancer goes through the roof. In fact, tobacco use accounts for most oral cancers. Smoking cigarettes, cigars, or pipes; using chewing tobacco; and dipping snuff are all linked to oral cancer. Heavy smokers who use tobacco for a long time are most at risk. The risk increases for tobacco users who drink alcohol heavily. Even the slickest of tobacco executives cant deny the statistics. The bottom lineis that three out of four oral cancers occur in people who use alcohol or tobacco, or both alcohol and tobacco. 1 Tobacco in any form is the enemy of good dental health. This is serious business–dont wait. Schedule a checkup and cleaning with the dentist or hygienist. It’s not an option—dental examinations that include a screening for oral cancer save lives. Oral cancer screening that is part of a dental checkup catches oral cancer early. As with most cancers, the earlier oral cancer is detected, the better a person’s chances for survival! 2 The laundry list of problems associated with smokeless tobacco is long enough—bad breath, stained teeth, loss of taste and smell, mouth (canker) sores, failure of dental implants, and oral cancer. Yet smoking and chewing tobacco are also the main suspects in gum recession, bone loss, and tooth loss associated with periodontal (gum) disease. Smokers who smoke less than a half a pack of cigarettes per day are almost three times more likely than nonsmokers to have periodontitis, according to a study by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 3 Now that we have your full attention, we’d like you to check the warning signs of oral disease: * Bleeding gums during brushing * Red, swollen, or tender gums Gums that have pulled away from the teeth * Persistent bad breath * Pus between the teeth and gums * Loose or separating teeth * A change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite4 The theme of Dental Hygiene Month 2012 is Keep them healthy. Keep them clean. It highlights easy ways to fit first-rate oral health into an active and busy life. If you are thinking about quitting smokeless tobacco or smoking, you’ve actually taken a step toward keeping your mouth clean and healthy by reading this article! If you want to have a confidential chat with a trained professional about taking tobacco out of the picture,  you’re only a click away. You are young, strong, and able! Don’t give  smokeless tobacco  or cigarettes an inch, or they will take your smile. Celebrate Dental Hygiene Month or take action for healthy teeth and gums at any time by making your appointment for a check | Images of some people suffering from different diseases caused due to eating tobacco or smoking – | | | | | | | Stop eating tobacco and smoking†¦. Thank you

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Christopher Columbus, reflecting on his voyage which led him to the discovery of America, said, "Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World." I am sure that after four years of high school, we have all formed our own opinion of Christopher Columbus - especially if you had Mrs. Powers - but whether you view him as a genocidal rogue or the first American Hero, I find his quote fitting for where we stand today. As we set sail, leaving behind the Old World of Coleman High School, there are many things that I am sure none of us will miss. We will enter a world without Scholarly Papers or Culminating Exhibitions; a world where we can use our cell phones freely and urinate without the permission of our teacher. In the real world, Sareth won't throw away your lunch before you've taken your first bite. Of course, if you've made it this far - if you are graduating here tonight - there are surely things you will miss about this Old World as well. Maybe you'll miss coming to school early and being surprised by free hot chocolate, or that third period teacher who would always let you turn in your assignments late. It might be that coach that never let you quit and always pushed you to your limits, or that gorgeous girl (or guy) that you got to sit next to freshman year. It could be walking with your best friend to class everyday, or that giant excuse of a bear that sits in front of the cafeteria. Wha tever it may be, we will all leave this place with something that we will miss and cherish forever, even if we don't fully realize what that is today. We will also leave behind a number of beloved teachers, counselors, and other staff persons - many of whom have had huge impacts on getting us here tonight. We will surely miss the... ...ves: whose advice do we take - Martin Luther King Jr.'s or Homer J. Simpson's? Do we put our brooms in the closet of futility and go inside and watch TV, or do we take them out and sweep like no sweeper has ever swept before? No matter where our passage takes us, we must navigate it to the best of our abilities, or we will fail. In conclusion, I will leave you with one last thought from the founder and President of Habitat for Humanity, Millard Fuller, who put it best when he said: "It's not your blue blood, your pedigree or your college degree. It's what you do with your life that counts." I would like to thank you all and congratulate you for surviving four years of my speeches and suffering the pangs of my voice on the announcements nearly everyday this year - but you have heard my voice for the last time so clap loud. Let's graduate. Thank you and God Bless.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 17. What Do I Look Like? …

17. What Do I Look Like? The Wizard Of Oz? You Need A Brain? You Need A Heart? Go Ahead.Take Mine. Take Everything I Have. HEART? GO AHEAD. TAKE MINE. TAKE EVERYTHING I HAVE. I sort of had a plan as I ran to the Cullens' garage. The second part of it was totaling the bloodsucker's car on my way back. So I was at a loss when I mashed the button on the keyless remote, and it was not his Volvo that beeped and flashed its lights for me. It was another car – a standout even in the long line of vehicles that were mostly all drool-worthy in their own ways. Did he actually mean to give me the keys to an Aston Martin Vanquish, or was that an accident? I didn't pause to think about it, or if this would change that second part of my plan. I just threw myself into the silky leather seat and cranked the engine while my knees were still crunched up under the steering wheel. The sound of the motor's purr might have made me moan another day, but right now it was all I could do to concentrate enough to put it in drive. I found the seat release and shoved myself back as my foot rammed the pedal down. The car felt almost airborne as it leaped forward. It only took seconds to race through the tight, winding drive. The car responded to me like my thoughts were steering rather than my hands. As I blew out of the green tunnel and onto the highway, I caught a fleeting glimpse of Leah's gray face peering uneasily through the ferns. For half a second, I wondered what she'd think, and then I realized that I didn't care. I turned south, because I had no patience today for ferries or traffic or anything else that meant I might have to lift my foot off the pedal. In a sick way, it was my lucky day. If by lucky you meant taking a well-traveled highway at two hundred without so much as seeing one cop, even in the thirty-mile-an-hour speed-trap towns. What a letdown. A little chase action might have been nice, not to mention that the license plate info would bring the heat down on the leech. Sure, he'd buy his way out of it, but it might have been just a little inconvenient for him. The only sign of surveillance i came across was just a hint of dark brown fur flitting through the woods, running parallel to me for a few miles on the south side of Forks. Quil, it looked like. He must have seen me, too, because he disappeared after a minute without raising an alarm. Again, I almost wondered what his story would be before I remembered that I didn't care. I raced around the long U-shaped highway, heading for the biggest city I could find. That was the first part of my plan. It seemed to take forever, probably because I was still on the razor blades, but it actually didn't even take two hours before I was driving north into the undefined sprawl that was part Tacoma and part Seattle. I slowed down then, because I really wasn't trying to kill any innocent bystanders. This was a stupid plan. It wasn't going to work. But, as I'd searched my head for any way at all to get away from the pain, what Leah'd said today had popped in there. That would go away, you know, if you imprinted. You wouldn't have to hurt over her anymore. Seemed like maybe getting your choices taken away from you wasn't the very worst thing in the world. Maybe feeling like this was the very worst thing in the world. But I'd seen all the girls in La Push and up on the Makah rez and in Forks. I needed a wider hunting range. So how do you look for a random soul mate in a crowd? Well, first, I needed a crowd. So I tooled around, looking for a likely spot. I passed a couple of malls, which probably would've been pretty good places to find girls my age, but I couldn't make myself stop. Did I want to imprint on some girl who hung out in a mall all day? I kept going north, and it got more and more crowded. Eventually, I found a big park full of kids and families and skateboards and bikes and kites and picnics and the whole bit. I hadn't noticed till now – it was a nice day. Sun and all that. People were out celebrating the blue sky. I parked across two handicapped spots – just begging for a ticket – and joined the crowd. I walked around for what felt like hours. Long enough that the sun changed sides in the sky. I stared into the face of every girl who passed anywhere near me, making myself really look, noticing who was pretty and who had blue eyes and who looked good in braces and who had way too much makeup on. I tried to find something interesting about each face, so that I would know for sure that I'd really tried. Things like: This one had a really straight nose; that one should pull her hair out of her eyes; this one could do lipstick ads if the rest of her face was as perfect as her mouth___ Sometimes they stared back. Sometimes they looked scared – like they were thinking, Who is this big freak glaring at me? Sometimes I thought they looked kind of interested, but maybe that was just my ego running wild. Either way, nothing. Even when I met the eyes of the girl who was – no contest – the hottest girl in the park and probably in the city, and she stared right back with a speculation that looked like interest, I felt nothing. Just the same desperate drive to find a way out of the pain. As time went on, I started noticing all the wrong things. Bella things. This one's hair was the same color. That one's eyes were sort of shaped the same. This one's cheekbones cut across her face in just the same way. That one had the same little crease between her eyes – which made me wonder what she was worrying about___ That was when I gave up. Because it was beyond stupid to think that I had picked exactly the right place and time and I was going to simply walk into my soul mate just because I was so desperate to. It wouldn't make sense to find her here, anyway. If Sam was right, the best place to find my genetic match would be in La Push. And, clearly, no one there fit the bill. If Billy was right, then who knew? What made for a stronger wolf? I wandered back to the car and then slumped against the hood and played with the keys. Maybe I was what Leah thought she was. Some kind of dead end that shouldn't be passed on to another generation. Or maybe it was just that my life was a big, cruel joke, and there was no escape from the punch line. â€Å"Hey, you okay? Hello? You there, with the stolen car.† It took me a second to realize that the voice was talking to me, and then another second to decide to raise my head. A familiar-looking girl was staring at me, her expression kind of anxious. I knew why I recognized her face – I'd already catalogued this one. Light red-gold hair, fair skin, a few gold-colored freckles sprinkled across her cheeks and nose, and eyes the color of cinnamon. â€Å"If you're feeling that remorseful over boosting the car,† she said, smiling so that a dimple popped out in her chin, â€Å"you could always turn yourself in.† â€Å"It's borrowed, not stolen,† I snapped. My voice sounded horrible – like I'd been crying or something. Embarrassing. â€Å"Sure, thatW hold up in court.† I glowered. â€Å"You need something?† â€Å"Not really. I was kidding about the car, you know. It's just that†¦ you look really upset about something. Oh, hey, I'm Lizzie.† She held out her hand. I looked at it until she let it fall. â€Å"Anyway†¦,† she said awkwardly, â€Å"I was just wondering if I could help. Seemed like you were looking for someone before.† She gestured toward the park and shrugged. â€Å"Yeah.† She waited. I sighed. â€Å"I don't need any help. She's not here.† â€Å"Oh. Sorry.† â€Å"Me, too,† I muttered. I looked at the girl again. Lizzie. She was pretty. Nice enough to try to help a grouchy stranger who must seem nuts. Why couldn't she be the one? Why did everything have to be so freaking complicated? Nice girl, pretty, and sort of funny. Why not? â€Å"This is a beautiful car,† she said. â€Å"It's really a shame they're not making them anymore. I mean, the Vantage's body styling is gorgeous, too, but there's just something about the Vanquish___† Nice girl who knew cars. Wow. I stared at her face harder, wishing I knew how to make it work. C'mon, Jake – imprint already. â€Å"How's it drive?† she asked. â€Å"Like you wouldn't believe,† I told her. She grinned her one-dimple smile, clearly pleased to have dragged a halfway civil response out of me, and I gave her a reluctant smile back. But her smile did nothing about the sharp, cutting blades that raked up and down my body. No matter how much I wanted it to, my life was not going to come together like that. I wasn't in that healthier place where Leah was headed. I wasn't going to be able to fall in love like a normal person. Not when I was bleeding over someone else. Maybe – if it was ten years from now and Bella's heart was long dead and I'd hauled myself through the whole grieving process and come out in one piece again – maybe then I could offer Lizzie a ride in a fast car and talk makes and models and get to know something about her and see if I liked her as a person. But that wasn't going to happen now. Magic wasn't going to save me. I was just going to have to take the torture like a man. Suck it up. Lizzie waited, maybe hoping I was going to offer her that ride. Or maybe not. â€Å"I'd better get this car back to the guy I borrowed it from,† I muttered. She smiled again. â€Å"Glad to hear you're going straight.† â€Å"Yeah, you convinced me.† She watched me get in the car, still sort of concerned. I probably looked like someone who was about to drive off a cliff. Which maybe I would've, if that kind of move'd work for a werewolf. She waved once, her eyes trailing after the car. At first, I drove more sanely on the way back. I wasn't in a rush. I didn't want to go where I was going. Back to that house, back to that forest. Back to the pain I'd run from. Back to being absolutely alone with it. Okay, that was melodramatic. I wouldn't be all alone, but that was a bad thing. Leah and Seth would have to suffer with me. I was glad Seth wouldn't have to suffer long. Kid didn't deserve to have his peace of mind ruined. Leah didn't, either, but at least it was something she understood. Nothing new about pain for Leah. I sighed big as I thought about what Leah wanted from me, because I knew now that she was going to get it. I was still pissed at her, but I couldn't ignore the fact that i could make her life easier. And – now that I knew her better – I thought she would probably do this for me, if our positions were reversed. It would be interesting, at the very least, and strange, too, to have Leah as a companion – as a friend. We were going to get under each other's skin a lot, that was for sure. She wouldn't be one to let me wallow, but I thought that was a good thing. I'd probably need someone to kick my butt now and then. But when it came right down to it, she was really the only friend who had any chance of understanding what I was going through now. I thought of the hunt this morning, and how close our minds had been for that one moment in time. It hadn't been a bad thing. Different. A little scary, a little awkward. But also nice in a weird way. I didn't have to be all alone. And I knew Leah was strong enough to face with me the months that were coming. Months and years. It made me tired to think about it. I felt like I was staring out across an ocean that I was going to have to swim from shore to shore before I could rest again. So much time coming, and then so little time before it started. Before I was flung into that ocean. Three and a half more days, and here I was, wasting that little bit of time I had. I started driving too fast again. I saw Sam and Jared, one on either side of the road like sentinels, as I raced up the road toward Forks. They were well hidden in the thick branches, but I was expecting them, and I knew what to look for. I nodded as I blew past them, not bothering to wonder what they made of my day trip. I nodded to Leah and Seth, too, as I cruised up the Cullens' driveway. It was starting to get dark, and the clouds were thick on this side of the sound, but I saw their eyes glitter in the glow of the headlights. I would explain to them later. There'd be plenty of time for that. It was a surprise to find Edward waiting for me in the garage. I hadn't seen him away from Bella in days. I could tell from his face that nothing bad had happened to her. In fact, he looked more peaceful than before. My stomach tightened as I remembered where that peace came from. It was too bad that – with all my brooding – I'd forgotten to wreck the car. Oh well. I probably wouldn't have been able to stand hurting this car, anyway. Maybe he'd guessed as much, and that's why he'd lent it to me in the first place. â€Å"A few things, Jacob,† he said as soon as I cut the engine. I took a deep breath and held it for a minute. Then, slowly, I got out of the car and threw the keys to him. â€Å"Thanks for the loan,† I said sourly. Apparently, it would have to be repaid. â€Å"What do you want now?† â€Å"Firstly†¦ I know how averse you are to using your authority with your pack, but†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I blinked, astonished that he would even dream of starting in on this one. â€Å"What?† â€Å"If you can't or won't control Leah, then I – â€Å" â€Å"Leah?† I interrupted, speaking through my teeth. â€Å"What happened?† Edward's face was hard. â€Å"She came up to see why you'd left so abruptly. I tried to explain. I suppose it might not have come out right.† â€Å"What did she do?† â€Å"She phased to her human form and – â€Å" â€Å"Really?† I interrupted again, shocked this time. I couldn't process that. Leah letting her guard down right in the mouth of the enemy's lair? â€Å"She wanted to†¦ speak to Bella.† â€Å"To Bella?† Edward got all hissy then. â€Å"I won't let Bella be upset like that again. I don't care how justified Leah thinks she is! I didn't hurt her – of course I wouldn't – but I'll throw her out of the house if it happens again. I'll launch her right across the river – â€Å" â€Å"Hold on. What did she say?† None of this was making any sense. Edward took a deep breath, composing himself. â€Å"Leah was unnecessarily harsh. I'm not going to pretend that I understand why Bella is unable to let go of you, but I do know that she does not behave this way to hurt you. She suffers a great deal over the pain she's inflicting on you, and on me, by asking you to stay. What Leah said was uncalled for. Bella's been crying – â€Å" â€Å"Wait – Leah was yelling at Bella about me?† He nodded one sharp nod. â€Å"You were quite vehemently championed.† Whoa. â€Å"I didn't ask her to do that.† â€Å"I know.† I rolled my eyes. Of course he knew. He knew everything. But that was really something about Leah. Who would have believed it? Leah walking into the bloodsuckers' place human to complain about how /was being treated. â€Å"I can't promise to control Leah,† I told him. â€Å"I won't do that. But I'll talk to her, okay? And I don't think there'll be a repeat. Leah's not one to hold back, so she probably got it all off her chest today.† â€Å"I would say so.† â€Å"Anyway, I'll talk to Bella about it, too. She doesn't need to feel bad. This one's on me.† â€Å"I already told her that.† â€Å"Of course you did. Is she okay?† â€Å"She's sleeping now. Rose is with her.† So the psycho was â€Å"Rose† now. He'd completely crossed over to the dark side. He ignored that thought, continuing with a more complete answer to my question. â€Å"She's†¦ better in some ways. Aside from Leah's tirade and the resulting guilt.† Better. Because Edward was hearing the monster and everything was all lovey-dovey now. Fantastic. â€Å"It's a bit more than that,† he murmured. â€Å"Now that I can make out the child's thoughts, it's apparent that he or she has remarkably developed mental facilities. He can understand us, to an extent.† My mouth fell open. â€Å"Are you serious?† â€Å"Yes. He seems to have a vague sense of what hurts her now. He's trying to avoid that, as much as possible. He†¦ loves her. Already.† I stared at Edward, feeling sort of like my eyes might pop out of their sockets. Underneath that disbelief, I could see right away that this was the critical factor. This was what had changed Edward – that the monster had convinced him of this love. He couldn't hate what loved Bella. It was probably why he couldn't hate me, either. There was a big difference, though. I wasn't killing her. Edward went on, acting like he hadn't heard all that. â€Å"The progress, I believe, is more than we'd judged. When Carlisle returns – â€Å" â€Å"They're not back?† I cut in sharply. I thought of Sam and Jared, watching the road. Would they get curious as to what was going on? â€Å"Alice and Jasper are. Carlisle sent all the blood he was able to acquire, but it wasn't as much as he was hoping for – Bella will use up this supply in another day the way her appetite has grown. Carlisle stayed to try another source. I don't think that's necessary now, but he wants to be covered for any eventuality.† â€Å"Why isn't it necessary? If she needs more?† I could tell he was watching and listening to my reaction carefully as he explained. Tm trying to persuade Carlisle to deliver the baby as soon as he is back.† â€Å"What?† â€Å"The child seems to be attempting to avoid rough movements, but it's difficult. He's become too big. It's madness to wait, when he's clearly developed beyond what Carlisle had guessed. Bella's too fragile to delay.† I kept getting my legs knocked out from under me. First, counting on Edward's hatred of the thing so much. Now, I'd realized that I thought of those four days as a sure thing. I'd banked on them. The endless ocean of grief that waited stretched out before me. I tried to catch my breath. Edward waited. I stared at his face while I recovered, recognizing another change there. â€Å"You think she's going to make it,† I whispered. â€Å"Yes. That was the other thing I wanted to talk to you about.† I couldn't say anything. After a minute, he went on. â€Å"Yes,† he said again. â€Å"Waiting, as we have been, for the child to be ready, that was insanely dangerous. At any moment it could have been too late. But if we're proactive about this, if we act quickly, I see no reason why it should not go well. Knowing the child's mind is unbelievably helpful. Thankfully, Bella and Rose agree with me. Now that I've convinced them it's safe for the child if we proceed, there's nothing to keep this from working.† â€Å"When will Carlisle be back?† I asked, still whispering. I hadn't got my breath back yet. â€Å"By noon tomorrow.† My knees buckled. I had to grab the car to hold myself up. Edward reached out like he was offering support, but then he thought better of it and dropped his hands. â€Å"I'm sorry,† he whispered. â€Å"I am truly sorry for the pain this causes you, Jacob. Though you hate me, I must admit that I don't feel the same about you. I think of you as a†¦ a brother in many ways. A comrade in arms, at the very least. I regret your suffering more than you realize. But Bella is going to survive† – when he said that his voice was fierce, even violent – â€Å"and I know that's what really matters to you.† He was probably right. It was hard to tell. My head was spinning. â€Å"So I hate to do this now, while you're already dealing with too much, but, clearly, there is little time. I have to ask you for something – to beg, if I must.† â€Å"I don't have anything left,† I choked out. He lifted his hand again, as if to put it on my shoulder, but then let it drop like before and sighed. â€Å"I know how much you have given,† he said quietly. â€Å"But this is something you do have, and only you. I'm asking this of the true Alpha, Jacob. I'm asking this of Ephraim's heir.† I was way past being able to respond. â€Å"I want your permission to deviate from what we agreed to in our treaty with Ephraim. I want you to grant us an exception. I want your permission to save her life. You know 111 do it anyway, but I don't want to break faith with you if there is any way to avoid it. We never intended to go back on our word, and we don't do it lightly now. I want your understanding, Jacob, because you know exactly why we do this. I want the alliance between our families to survive when this is over.† I tried to swallow. Sam, I thought. It's Sam you want. â€Å"No. Sam's authority is assumed. It belongs to you. You'll never take it from him, but no one can rightfully agree to what I'm asking except for you† It's not my decision. â€Å"It is, Jacob, and you know it. Your word on this will condemn us or absolve us. Only you can give this to me.† can't think. I don't know. â€Å"We don't have much time.† He glanced back toward the house. No, there was no time. My few days had become a few hours. don't know. Let me think. Just give me a minute here, okay? â€Å"Yes.† I started walking to the house, and he followed. Crazy how easy it was, walking through the dark with a vampire right beside me. It didn't feel unsafe, or even uncomfortable, really. It felt like walking next to anybody. Well, anybody who smelled bad. There was a movement in the brush at the edge of the big lawn, and then a low whimper. Seth shrugged through the ferns and loped over to us. â€Å"Hey, kid,† I muttered. He dipped his head, and I patted his shoulder. â€Å"S'all cool,† I lied. â€Å"I'll tell you about it later. Sorry to take off on you like that.† He grinned at me. â€Å"Hey, tell your sister to back off now, okay? Enough.† Seth nodded once. I shoved against his shoulder this time. â€Å"Get back to work. I'll spell you in a bit.† Seth leaned against me, shoving back, and then he galloped into the trees. â€Å"He has one of the purest, sincerest, kindest minds I've ever heard,† Edward murmured when he was outof sight. â€Å"You're lucky to have his thoughts to share.† â€Å"I know that,†! grunted. We started toward the house, and both of our heads snapped up when we heard the sound of someone sucking through a straw. Edward was in a hurry then.He darted up the porch stairs and was gone. â€Å"Bella, love, Ithought you were sleeping,† I heard him say. â€Å"I'm sorry, I wouldn't have left.† â€Å"Don't worry. Ijust got so thirsty – it woke me up.It's a good thing Carlisle is bringing more. This kid is going to need it when he gets out of me.† â€Å"True. That's a good point.† â€Å"I wonder if he'll want anything else,† she mused. â€Å"I suppose we'll find out.† I walked through the door. Alice said, â€Å"Finally,† and Bella's eyes flashed to me. That infuriating, irresistible smile broke across her face for one second. Then it faltered, and her face fell. Her lips puckered, like she was trying not to cry. I wanted to punch Leah right in her stupid mouth. â€Å"Hey, Bells,† Isaid quickly. â€Å"How ya doing?† â€Å"I'm fine,† she said. â€Å"Big day today, huh? Lots of new stuff.† â€Å"You don't have to do that, Jacob.† â€Å"Don't know what you're talking about,† I said, going to sit on the arm of the sofa by her head. Edward had the floor there already. She gave me a reproachful look. â€Å"I'm so s – † she started to say. I pinched her lips together between my thumb and finger. â€Å"Jake,† she mumbled, trying to pull my hand away. Her attempt was so weak it was hard to believe that she was really trying. I shook my head. â€Å"You can talk when you're not being stupid.† â€Å"Fine,I won't say it,† it sounded like she mumbled. I pulled my hand away. â€Å"Sorry!† she finished quickly, and then grinned. I rolledmy eyes and then smiled back at her. When I stared into her eyes, I saw everything that I'd been looking for in the park. Tomorrow, she'd be someone else. But hopefully alive, and that was what counted, right? She'd look at me with the same eyes, sort of. Smile with the same lips, almost. She'd still know me better than anyone who didn't havefull access to the inside of my head. Leah might be an interesting companion, maybe even a true friend – someone who would stand up for me. But she wasn't my best friend the way thatBella was. Aside from the impossible love I felt for Bella, there was also that other bond, and it ran bone deep. Tomorrow, she'd be my enemy. Or she'd be myally. And, apparently, that distinction was up to me. I sighed. Fine!I thought, giving up the very last thing i had to give. It made me feel hollow. Go ahead. Save her. As Ephraim's heir, you have my permission, my word, that this will not violate the treaty. The others will just have to blame me. You were right – they can't deny that it's my right to agree to this. ‘Thank you.† Edward's whisper was low enough that Bella didn't hear anything. But the words were so fervent that, from the corner of my eye, I saw the other vampires turning to stare. â€Å"So,†Bella asked, working to be casual. â€Å"How was your day?† â€Å"Great. Went for a drive. Hung out in the park.† â€Å"Sounds nice.† â€Å"Sure, sure.† Suddenly, she made a face. â€Å"Rose?† she asked. I heard Blondie chuckle. â€Å"Again?† â€Å"I think I've drunk two gallons in the last hour,† Bella explained. Edward and I both got out of the way while Rosalie came to lift Bella from the couch and take her to the bathroom. â€Å"Can I walk?† Bella asked. â€Å"My legs are so stiff.† â€Å"Are you sure?† Edward asked. â€Å"Rose'llcatch me if I trip over my feet. Which could happen pretty easily, since I can't see them.† Rosalie set Bellacarefully on her feet, keeping her hands right atBella's shoulders. Bella stretched her arms out in front of her, wincing a little. â€Å"That feels good,† she sighed. â€Å"Ugh, but I'm huge.† She really was. Her stomach was its own continent. â€Å"One more day,† she said, and patted her stomach. I couldn't help the pain that shot through me in a sudden, stabbing burst, but I tried to keep it off my face. I could hide it for one more day, right? â€Å"All righty, then. Whoops – oh, no!† The cup Bella had left on the sofa tumbled to one side, the dark red blood spilling out onto the pale fabric. Automatically, though three other hands beat her there, Bella bent over, reaching out to catch it. There was the strangest, muffled ripping sound from the center of her body. â€Å"Oh!† she gasped. And then she went totally limp, slumping toward the floor. Rosalie caught her in the same instant, before she could fall. Edward was there, too, hands out, the mess on the sofa forgotten. â€Å"Bella?† he asked, and then his eyes unfocused, and panic shot across his features. A half second later,Bella screamed. Itwas not justa scream, it was a blood-curdling shriek of agony. The horrifying sound cut off with a gurgle, and her eyes rolled back into her head. Her body twitched, arched in Rosalie's arms, and then Bella vomited a fountain of blood.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Homeostatic Imbalances Essay - 757 Words

Homeostatic Imbalances Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. Blood pressure readings are usually given as two numbers -- for example, 120 over 80 (written as 120/80 mmHg). One or both of these numbers can be too high. The top number is called the systolic blood pressure, which is the force of blood in the arteries as the heart beats, and the bottom number is called the diastolic blood pressure which is the force of blood in the arteries as the heart relaxes between beats. When you blood pressure is a normal it’s lower than 120/80 mmHg most of the time. High blood pressure (hypertension)†¦show more content†¦The control center evaluates the input and if necessary, issues output commands to an effector. The effector produces a physiological response that is able to return the controlled condition to its normal state. People with diabetes have a condition in which the quantity of glucose (blood sugar) in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). This is because the body does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin Type 1, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces diabetes Type 2. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements. Diabetes is a system out of balance. When normal sugar homeostasis is disrupted by either the pancreas not making enough insulin and/or the bodys cells not responding to the insulin, glucose homeostasis is disrupted as the glucose levels rise. Another system which has disrupted homeostasis from diabetes is the body water regulation system. As sugar levels rise in the blood, water is pulled out of the cells, shrinking them. The brain doesnt function as well and cloudy thoughts happen.. Water is pulled out of the vitreous of the eyeball, and it shrinks, causing blurring vision. The high glucose starts leaking through theShow MoreRelatedHomeostatic Imbalances. Hypertension and Diabetes Essay601 Words   |  3 Pageseliminate glucose from the blood. These two responses of the organism to internal changes are part of negative feedback system that allows the body to return to a normal state. In your specific case the feedback system is not able to maintain the homeostatic balance because your body does not produce enough or overproduces the hormone insulin and sometimes glucagon; in addition, the receptor sites within target cells could cause the body to become insensitive to these chemicals. Finally, the malfunctionRead MoreLABORATORY REPORT Activity Homeostatic Imbalances of Thyroid Function 1243 Words   |  5 PagesLABORATORY REPORT Activity: Homeostatic Imbalances of Thyroid Function Name: Miranda Tefft Instructor: Aline Potvin Date: 11.18.2014 Predictions TSH levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism are high Thyroxine (T4) levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism are low TSH levels in patients with secondary hypothyroidism are low Thyroxine (T4) levels in patients with secondary hypothyroidism are low TSH levels in patients with hyperthyroidism are low Thyroxine (T4) levels in patientsRead MoreHow Homeostasis Is Important For Your Life702 Words   |  3 Pagesclarifying the different kinds of homeostasis in greater detail. Homeostasis is the term used to describe a body or system in balance, but one of the process the body uses to achieve this is called negative feedback control. Figure 1 below shows the homeostatic system. This system involves several steps: First a stimulus causes a change. The change is then felt by the receptor. The receptor sends information to the control center, which sends signals dependent on what is needed to the effector. The effectorRead MoreWhat is Homeostasis? 1390 Words   |  6 Pagesthirst, blood pressure, and daily circadian rhythms (msichicago.org, 2014). Homeostatic processes within the human body include temperature control, pH balance, water and glucose balance, blood pressure, and respiration (Bailey, 2014). Homeostasis is only achieved if every organ in the body functions in tandem. Homeostatic regulation involves three mechanisms; the receptor, the control center and the effector (Homeostatic Process - Homeostasis, 2014). As seen in the diagram, the receptor receivesRead MoreThe Principles Of Homeostasis And The Contribution Of The Cardiovascular System1483 Words   |  6 Pagesheart failure (CHF), the causes and the consequences of a homeostatic imbalance in cardiac output will be explained. Homeostatic principles Homeostasis can generally be defined as the condition in which the body’s internal environment remains relatively constant within physiological limits [1]. This type of equilibrium is dynamic as the body is constantly subject to stimuli, which produce stress responses (stressors). The body’s homeostatic mechanisms therefore act to counter these stressors andRead MoreUnit 1 Lab1050 Words   |  5 PagesLABORATORY REPORT Activity: Homeostatic Imbalances of Thyroid Function Name: Brent Good Instructor: Thomas Redenbaugh Date: 12.09.2014 Predictions TSH levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism are high Thyroxine (T4) levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism are low TSH levels in patients with secondary hypothyroidism are low Thyroxine (T4) levels in patients with secondary hypothyroidism are high TSH levels in patients with hyperthyroidism are high Thyroxine (T4) levels in patientsRead MoreHomeostasis Lap Report Essay1216 Words   |  5 PagesLABORATORY REPORT Activity: Homeostatic Imbalances of Thyroid Function Name: Theres Castle Instructor: Virgil Stoia Date: 10.20.2014 Predictions TSH levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism are high Thyroxine (T4) levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism are low TSH levels in patients with secondary hypothyroidism are low Thyroxine (T4) levels in patients with secondary hypothyroidism are low TSH levels in patients with hyperthyroidism are low ThyroxineRead MoreEssay on Epithelial Tissue1250 Words   |  5 Pagesheart, blood and lymphatic vessels, and the ventral body cavity. Question: Find an example of a homeostatic imbalance involving the tissue type you described in b above. How does this homeostatic imbalance affect the body? How might you correct this imbalance? Answer: The simple squamous epithelial tissue in the kidney helps allow passage of certain materials (wastes). If there is a homeostatic imbalance during this function, there could be severe damage done to the kidney and the body as a wholeRead MoreRisks Associated With Lifestyle Diseases1652 Words   |  7 Pagesoccur in people with type 2 Diabetes and that 41 per cent of people with type 2 Diabetes experienced some form of nerve or eye damage. This could mean that Australia could lose its population through type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes affects the homeostatic ability of controlling blood sugar levels and water content in the human body. The process of glucose homeostasis is when the pancreas produces insulin, to assist the glucose (from consumed foods) in entering the body’s cells. However with typeRead MoreAcid Base Balance1137 Words   |  5 PagesAcid-Base Balance Kelly Heffron Grand Canyon University NUR-614 September 16, 2015 Acid-Base Balance The acid base balance is a homeostatic process that aides the body in maintaining a pH in the arterial blood between 7.35-7.45 (Patient, 2015). The body works together through multi-systems to ensure that acidity or alkalinity never take over within the blood. The purpose of the following paper is define the classification of the acid-base balance, define the factors from the case study,